What were the slaves called?
In the history of mankind there are a lot of pages that I would like to forget. And slavery is one of them. But at a certain stage it was a necessary stage in the development of society, and in one form or another existed in all parts of the world. And what were the slaves called in different countries?
Slavery originated in the days of the patriarchal society, when the captured enemies became powerless members of the family and lived with the owner. Gradually, not only foreigners, but also fellow tribesmen, were turned into slaves for debts and grave crimes.
In ancient Egypt, prisoners were killed and called, respectively, "the dead." With the development of agriculture, crafts, they became the prey of the leaders - "living killed".
In the Babylonian society, slaves were called Vardum, East African slaves in southern Mesopotamia - Zinji. In China, the slave-man was designated by the word well, the slave is Bay, the slaves are well-bay.
In the ancient world, with the final division into free citizens and slaves, physical labor became the lot of only non-citizens, that is, foreigners captured.
They were considered a thing, “speaking instrument,” as slaves were called in Rome. The Latin name of the slave is servus (servus). The development of slavery in Rome led to the emergence of various categories of slaves: urban-owned (familia urbana), rural (familia rustica), gladiators, and others.
In Turkey, slaves were called Mamluks. Slaves of the Anglo-Saxons - the summer, the Vikings - the tolls.
In ancient Rus, slaves-captives became chelyadins, and from the local population - slaves. Gradually, these words acquired a different meaning.
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