How to prepare tomato paste and tomato puree
Raw material Tomatoes due to their high nutritional value is one of the main types of raw materials processed by the canning industry. They contain sugars, organic acids, vitamin C, carotene, lycopene, B vitamins, amino acids, polysaccharides and other valuable substances.
For the production of concentrated tomato products, fresh, ripe tomatoes of manual and mechanized harvesting are allowed.
Raw materials of manual collection - the mass fraction of dry substances of tomatoes is from 4 to 9.5%, the average value is about 6%. Most of the mass fraction of dry substances of tomatoes accounted for sugar - 2.5-4.5%. Organic acids contain 0.4–0.6% (for malic acid), mainly in the form of malic and citric acid, but tartaric and oxalic acid are found in small quantities. The ratio of sugar to acid is in the optimal range of 6-8.
Protein in ripe tomatoes is presented in the form of amino acids in the amount of 0.6-1%. Tomatoes are considered one of the sources of vitamin C, they provide a person with a third of his annual rate.In tomatoes is contained on average (mg per 100 g): vitamin C-25; lycopi-6-8; carotene-0.06-1.2; AT6- 0.10; B - 0.06; AT2- 0.04; biotin - 1,2; niacin - 0.53.
Of the total amount of mineral substances - 0.5-0.8% - the largest content of macronutrients accounts for potassium, and microelements - for iron.
The polysaccharides in tomatoes are in the form of fiber, pectin, hemicelluloses and starch.
In ripe tomatoes, the protopectin, which binds cells, goes mostly into soluble pectin. It accumulates in the range of 0.05-0.3%.
Propectin contains about 0.1%, fiber - 0.2-0.8%, starch to 0.3%, hemicelluloses - 0.1—0.2%.
The raw material of mechanized harvesting is a fundamental difference between new varieties of tomatoes intended for machine harvesting, as compared with conventional tomatoes, and an increased resistance to mechanical damage. Thanks to this new quality of raw materials, on the one hand, it became possible to apply progressive technology of harvesting and delivery, as well as to increase the production of canned goods that are in high demand. On the other hand, the high strength of tomatoes, due to an increase of 1.5 times the content of insoluble solids - fiber, protopectin, pentosans, lignin - complicates the process of concentration.For the normal conduct of this process and efficient operation of the evaporation apparatus, according to OTIPP them. MV Lomonosov, it is recommended to use tomatoes, in which the ratio of soluble (P) and insoluble (HP) solids is not less than 3. The optimum ratio for the tomato mass entering the concentration is considered to be within 7-10 units. For machine grades this indicator is lower.
Tomatoes intended for mechanized harvesting, according to A. M. Lukyanenko, are less than 2 times the mass of fruits (40-50 g) compared with raw materials for manual harvesting, a lower content of organic acids, a higher value from 4.2 to 4, 7, an increased amount of lycopene (8.6-11.2 mg per 100 g) and a brighter color. According to the content of sugars and the mass fraction of dry substances, they are not inferior to manually picked tomatoes.
At the same time, mechanized harvesting led to abundant contamination of raw materials with plant and soil impurities, and therefore microbial contamination increased 10–100 times compared with fruits harvested by hand.
Taking into account these features, a technological process is developed for processing tomatoes into concentrated products (Fig. 26).
Collection, delivery and storage of raw materials. Mechanized harvesting of tomatoes begins at maturity on a bush 70-80% of the fruits, using a complex of machines from the self-propelled combine SKT-2 and the PT-3.5 tractor platform with box pallets or a 2PTS-4M dump tractor. The harvester cuts and picks up a bush of tomatoes, the tomatoes are separated from the tops by the fruit separator and get to the sorting conveyor, where they manually select raw green rotten clods of earth. Green fruits are collected in a bunker, and red fruits - on an inclined conveyor, are fed to load box pallets installed on a PT-3.5 platform next to it, which the tractor synchronously moves with the combine.
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