Methods of treatment of malignant tumors

Methods of treatment of malignant tumors

Methods of treatment of malignant tumors




Surgery is the oldest method of treating cancer. This method can be used izlIrovanno or in combination with other methods of treatment.


Factors that increase the risk associated with surgery include the presence of comorbidities, cancer cachexia and, less commonly, paraneoplastic syndromes. Cancer patients are often malnourished due to anorexia and the effect on the catabolism of a growing tumor. The above factors can slow the recovery process after surgical treatment. Patients often have neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, which increase the risk of septic and hemorrhagic complications. Therefore, the assessment of the patient's condition before the operation is of paramount importance.


Methods of treatment of malignant tumorsare developing. In cases where there is a primary tumor without metastasis, surgical treatment can often lead to a cure.Establishing the exact boundary of the normal tissue surrounding the primary tumor is critical for successful resection of the primary tumor. An intraoperative study of a frozen tissue sample by a morphologist is necessary for making a decision and the feasibility of resecting additional tissue if there are positive data on the presence of tumor cells. However, a study of a frozen tissue sample is less reliable than a study of a treated and stained sample, so a later revision of border tissue samples may require a wider resection. Surgical resection of the primary tumor with local spread may require removal of the involved regional lymph nodes, resection of the affected adjacent organs or resection of the whole block. Indicators of 5-year survival when using only a surgical method of treatment for certain types of cancer.


In cases of the presence of metastases, when the primary tumor largely extends into adjacent normal tissues, the operation may be postponed for the application of other treatment methods (eg, chemotherapy, radiation therapy), which in the future can reduce the amount of necessary resection.When metastasis to regional lymph nodes is detected, non-surgical treatment methods may be the most optimal choice of initial therapy, for example, in case of local spread of lung cancer or head and neck tumors. Single metastases, especially those located in the lung, can sometimes be surgically removed with acceptable treatment efficacy.


Patients with a small number of metastases, especially located in the liver, brain, lung, can be successfully treated by resection simultaneously with the primary tumor. For example, in colon cancer with liver metastases, after performing resection, 5-year survival rates are 30–40% in cases of less than 4 metastases and an operation with an adequate border of resection.


Cytoreduction performed by surgical resection in order to reduce the tumor mass is often the best solution when the removal of all tumor tissues is not possible, as, for example, in most cases of ovarian cancer. Cytoreduction can increase the sensitivity of the remaining tumor tissue to other therapies through mechanisms that are not entirely clear.Cytoreduction has the most optimal results in pediatric solid tumors and ovarian cancer.


Palliative surgery reduces symptoms and preserves quality of life when cure is unlikely or when a cure program is unacceptable for a patient due to toxicity. Resection of the tumor can be indicated for the removal of pain syndrome, reducing the risk of bleeding, eliminating obstruction of organs (eg, intestines, ureters). Nutrition through gastros-tom or ejnostomu is necessary, if there is a proximal obstruction.


Reconstructive surgery can improve the patient's quality of life after tumor resection (for example, breast reconstruction after mastectomy).

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