What is growing in greenhouses
A greenhouse is a structure with an artificial microclimate inside that is suitable for growing plants. For the latter to grow and develop normally, they need a certain soil composition, heat, light, moisture. All these conditions are provided in open ground only for a short summer. To grow plants in spring, autumn or even in winter, it is necessary to create an artificial climate. For this and serve greenhouses
The design of greenhouses can be different - arched, duo-pitch, trapezoidal. The most common arch design - as the most technologically advanced and economical with respect to the materials used. The frame construction of the greenhouse frame is covered with a translucent material - glass, plastic wrap, cellular polycarbonate. The latter gained the most popularity due to its lightness, durability, and increased thermal insulation.
The main purpose of the greenhouse is to create inside it the optimum temperature for the plants. For this purpose, various heating devices are used - water heating batteries, heat guns, heaters, etc. Greenhouses may not have heating equipment, being used as ordinary greenhouses. The temperature increased in comparison with the outside air in this case is provided by the greenhouse effect created by the translucent material.
Greenhouses can be used both for the cultivation of early seedlings, which are transplanted into open ground when the warm season sets in, and for the cultivation of plants remaining in the greenhouse for the entire growing season - most often, a tomato.
The technology of greenhouse cultivation basically does not differ from the technology used in open ground. Plants are planted in the form of seeds or seedlings in the ground or pots, watered, fed, planted, if necessary, stepson and tied up, etc. However, there are some differences in the cultivation of plants in protected and unprotected soil.
The main difference is the need to artificially maintain the desired temperature, which can vary significantly depending on the type of crops grown. For most plants, daytime temperatures in the range of 23-25 ° C are optimal, night temperatures are 15-18 ° C. The temperature is adjusted manually or automatically with the help of control equipment.
Since plants are grown in a greenhouse at a time when solar activity is limited, it is often necessary to artificially highlight plants. Usually, gas-discharge lamps are used as lighting devices.
The enclosed space of greenhouses creates high humidity, which adversely affects many plants. To reduce it, the greenhouse must be well ventilated - using natural or forced ventilation.
Careful attention is paid to watering plants. Land in a greenhouse does not naturally receive moisture in the form of rain, so it should be watered regularly. At the same time, careful control over the humidity of the earth is necessary, and overmoistening is dangerous due to the occurrence of diseases.
Since the soil of the greenhouse accumulates pathogenic bacteria, from time to time - once every 2-3 years - it must be replaced with fresh.To do this, remove the layer of soil with a thickness of 10-15 cm and take it out, and instead of it they import fresh earth.
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